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  • Highland house

    The Highland House is one of the subtypes of houses in East Bohemia and Western Moravia. The Highland House marks period regional forms of traditional buildings in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, especially in the former district of Žďár nad Sázavou and partly Havlíčkův Brod.

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  • House of East Bohemia and West Moravia Poličský dům

    The East Bohemia and Western Moravia House is divided into several subtypes: Polička house, Třebová-Svitavy region, Dyje-Oslava area and Highland House. Estates of this type appear in areas which includes part of eastern and southern Bohemia, the Czech-Moravian Highlands and some parts of western Moravia.

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  • Fishery

    Fishery - A set of human activities related to fishing and fish farming for food. In the Czech lands the most frequent species has traditionally been carp and to a lesser extent trout. Fishing has been carried out since Palaeolithic times; ponds began to emerge in the middle Ages (13th century) when new fish species, mainly carps, started to be farmed. Carp became an important part of folk diet (it is consumed on the Christmas Eve). The development of fish farming in the Czech lands is attributed mainly to dam builders from the beginning of the 16th century (Štěpánek Netolický and Jakub Krčín from Jelčany). After the Thirty Years War, this means of livelihood declined, however, in the mid-19th century due to new methods introduced by Josef Šusta, fish farming flourished again. The current state of fish production has been maintained since the interwar period. The method used most commonly has been damming and catching (forbidden since the late 19th century), catching by various trapping tools, baskets, hooks and fish lines, hemp nets or by draining ponds.

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  • Stonecutting

    Stonecutting - deals with stone mining and manufacturing. Stone cutting has been applied mainly in the construction industry and sculpting (stone sculpting). From the Middle Ages until 1858 stone cutting was organised on the basis of guilds together with brick masons. From the second half of the 18th century stone began to be mined industrially. The biggest boom of industrial stone mining started in the mid-19th century. After 1948 stone mining and manufacturing came under state supervision. Private sector stone mining was restored only after 1989. Within the folk tradition stone sculptors created mostly stone crosses, statues of saints (mainly Christian and Marian motives), figural tombstones, and secular statues as well. The main motive has been usually traditional, inventiveness was usually shown when creating pedestals.

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  • Folk medicine

    Folk medicine - A set of traditional practices for healing people and animals. It consists of both - the knowledge of the organism gained through long term observation , superstitious ideas and magic as well. A certain degrees of awareness regarding healing practices was a part of common knowledge in households, however, in more severe cases specialists - healers were sought. The healing tradition was usually inherited within a family unit. Healing through herbs was documented as far as the ancient Slavs. After 1948 folk medicine was prohibited and since 1989 it is experiencing a revival along with oriental medicine and esotericism is gaining popularity. The most common healing method in the Czech lands was herbal medicine, magic, to a lesser extent massages, joint remedy, obstetrics, and even some surgical procedures.

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  • Folk veterinary medicine Léčba zvířat

    Folk veterinary medicine – a set of practices and knowledge used in domestic animal healing and disease prevention. Each household had at least basic knowledge of animal health . Veterinary operations were usually performed by shepherds, blacksmiths and knackers, or to a lesser extent by human healers or Gypsies. Professional veterinary medicine developed in the 19th century. Animal health was secured through supernatural ways as well. Christian saints, mainly the Virgin Mary, and patrons of each animal species, were asked for protection. Basic traditional healing methods included the use of herbal or mineral medicine, poultices, massages but also invocation.

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  • Joinery

    Joinery - part of woodworking, craft that refers to furniture manufacturing from wood. Joinery developed with the gradual specialization of carpenters in towns from the 13th century. Since the mid-15th century, joiners started to found their own guilds (in Kutná Hora or Prague). Since the second decade of the 20th century production has been mechanized - for instance a band saw, drill machine or milling cutter were put into use. After 1948 joinery works were collectivized, and this can be described as the end of traditional joinery. After the revolution of 1989 joinery has been developing as a private enterprise again. Joiners used many types of wood, however mostly oak, beech, elm, fir, spruce, pine or hornbeam.

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  • Small animals breeding

    Small animals breeding - refers to poultry, rabbit, pigeon, dog and cat breeding. Within the folk tradition it was rather a complementary breeding. Poultry was bred mainly for eggs, meat, fat, feathers and poultry excrements used as manure. Poultry is divided into gallinaceous (domestic fowl, hen) and aquatic poultry (ducks, geese). Aquatic poultry, and to a lesser extent hens, were used for feather plucking. In folk culture small animals had important symbolic value as well. Cats were bred to catch rodents, dogs for guarding (e. g. livestock guarding), pigeons for meat and manure.

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  • Brewing

    Brewing – a food industry dealing with the production of beer. It´s origins are date back to ancient times. The first reference to brewing in the Czech lands is date to the end of the 11th century. Brewing experienced a boom in the 16the century, and since 19th century beer has been conducted industrially. After 1989 the number of small scale and family breweries has increased again. Beer has its own related folklore - songs and customs. St. Wenceslas is regarded as the patron of brewing.

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  • Glass Industry

    Glass industry - industry that deals with glass production and processing. In the Czech lands glassworks were established particularly in the region of Šumava, Lužické and Jizerské mountains, Krkonoše, northwest Moravia and other locations. The main products of local glassworks were cut goblets. Within the folk culture the painted bottle called pryska, originally used at weddings, represents one of the most interesting glass products. Glass sculptures made by glassmakers after their working hours for their relatives began to emerge in the second half of the 19th century in the region of Českomoravská vrchovina. Glass products spread to towns and villages at the end of the 18th century. In the Czech lands glass production started in the 14th century, from the beginning of the 17th century Czech glass has been exported to other European countries. After 1948 glassworks were nationalized, and were became private again after the revolution of 1989.

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  • Sheep breeding Ovčárna

    Sheep breeding is part of the livestock sector. In the Czech lands farm sheep were widely raised (meat, milk), later merino sheep (wool). Seasonally sheep were herded in the sluice, respectively in a "kosar". In the regions of Moravia (Wallachia) and Silesia a special type of extensive seasonal breed, which is called the alpine dairy was used.

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  • Crib making Lidový betlém

    Crib making - a form of folk handicraft dealing with crib making (or creche). The crib is a depiction of the birth of Jesus which has traditionally been constructed between Christmas and Candle Mass in order to pay honour to these feasts. In the Czech lands the first cribs emerged in the 16th century; only in churches at first. In the 18th century folk crib making spread and reached its peak in the middle of the 19th century. The original material - wood, was supplied with other materials such as paper or dough.

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  • Wheelwrights

    Wheelwrights - the craft of making wheeled vehicles, agricultural tools and other products from wood. In the Czech lands the occurrence wheelwrights craft is documented since the 14th century. During the 18th century this craft spread into the rural parts of the land and production of agricultural tools was added. In the 19th century the wheel production was reduced and after the Second World War almost disappeared. Wheelwrights used mainly oak, elm, beech, ash, maple, birch and coniferous wood. Some of the wheelwright´s products are decorated with chisel carving.

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  • Toy making

    Toy making, the domestic production and distribution of toys. In the Czech lands it emerged during the 18th century and peaked in the 19th century. It developed as an alternative livelihood of seasonal farmers, former coal miners and textile manufacturers. Local toys were strongly influenced by German and Austrian products. The trend of folk toy making decreased at the beginning of the 20th century. Toys were mainly carved and wood-turned, less frequently made of clay. They were static, mechanic or acoustic. As for themes, the most frequent were figures, Hussars or whistles.

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  • Bakery craft

    Bakery craft - A food craft dealing primarily with bread making, but also other types of pastry (most often rolls, buns, cakes or marble cakes). It occurred as specialised craft only in towns, in the country home baking prevailed. Baking could be found in all early Slavic cultures. Since the second half of the 19th century as the efficiency of industrial production of baked goods increased, home baking decreased significantly by the middle of the 20th century. Bread represented one of the basic components of folk nourishment. Bread was ascribed a great symbolic value and related to beliefs and taboos used in folk medicine or religious rites.

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  • Viticulture Troja

    Viticulture - agricultural branch dealing with growing and cultivation of grapes and winemaking. In the Czech lands viticulture emerged along with the spread of Christianity in the 10th century. The region of South Moravia offers better growing conditions; historically there have always been more vineyards in this area. Originally Danube grape varieties were grown, later Burgundy and Austrian varieties were included. Grapes represent a frequent folk motif.

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